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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 55-59

To identify newer probable risk factors of chronic kidney disease in the indian population: A case–control study


1 Department of Medicine, SBKS MIRC, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, Piparia, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, Piparia, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh Mamtani
C-320 Anand Baug Society, Vadodara, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cmi.cmi_14_19

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Introduction: This study was conducted to identify unknown factors which may have been contributing to the increasing incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: We performed a population-based observational case–control study on patients having CKD as cases and their age- and sex-matched disease-free controls for 6 months. Detailed information on demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, dietary, and medical history was collected using validated self-structured questionnaire, and the data were statistically analyzed to find out the association between various dietary, environmental, and behavioral factors and CKD. Results: The mean age of patients having CKD was 49.6 ± 14.59 years, with male-to-female ratio of 1.94:1. The history of consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, antibiotics, and smoking was present in 66%, 65%, 54%, 30%, and 27%, respectively. Anemia and malaria were present in 11.3% each. 17% gave a history of low water intake. People living in the rural area with no or limited medical facilities were more prone to CKD (55%). Conclusions: Although some of our observations may have been influenced by confounding and we cannot confirm these as causative associations, we were able to identify the unknown factors which may be contributory. This study at least opens up new areas of research to find causative factors for CKD and target health policies toward them to constraint the rapidly increasing prevalence and burden of the disease.


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