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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Upper left: Activation of T cells requires that the T-cell receptor binds to structures on other immune cells recognized as “non-self”. A protein functioning as a T-cell accelerator is also required for T cell activation. CTLA-4 functions as a brake on T cells that inhibits the function of the accelerator. Lower left: Antibodies (green) against CTLA-4 block the function of the brake leading to activation of T cells and attack on cancer cells. Upper right: PD-1 is another T-cell brake that inhibits T-cell activation. Lower right: Antibodies against PD-1 inhibit the function of the brake leading to activation of T cells and highly efficient attack on cancer cells.

Figure 1: <b>Upper left:</b> Activation of T cells requires that the T-cell receptor binds to structures on other immune cells recognized as “non-self”. A protein functioning as a T-cell accelerator is also required for T cell activation. CTLA-4 functions as a brake on T cells that inhibits the function of the accelerator.
<b>Lower left:</b> Antibodies (green) against CTLA-4 block the function of the brake leading to activation of T cells and attack on cancer cells.
<b>Upper right:</b> PD-1 is another T-cell brake that inhibits T-cell activation.
<b>Lower right:</b> Antibodies against PD-1 inhibit the function of the brake leading to activation of T cells and highly efficient attack on cancer cells.