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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 217-221

Primary evaluation and acute management of vertigo

Department of Surgical Oncology, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sisha Liz Abraham
Department of Surgical Oncology, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Kochi, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cmi.cmi_11_20

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Vertigo, an illusory movement, arises mostly because of lesions in the peripheral vestibular system (e.g., damage or dysfunction of the labyrinth and vestibular nerve) and occasionally that of central vestibular structures. Patients give various descriptions of vertigo: a head-spinning feeling, swaying, tilting, or an imbalance in walking depending on the location of the lesion. Acute vertigo remains a diagnostic challenge for the physicians due to the wide array of differential diagnosis. It is important to distinguish the central causes of vertigo from its peripheral causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common causes of peripheral vertigo, most commonly attributed to calcium debris within the posterior semicircular canal, known as canalithiasis. Prompt diagnosis by positional testing (e.g., Dix–Hallpike), performing a bedside repositioning maneuver (e.g., Epley) and administering symptomatic therapy helps in providing the quick relief to the highly distressing symptom of vertigo due to BPPV.

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