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MEDICAL EDUCATION
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 71-72

Scope of portfolio in medical training


1 Deputy Director – Academics, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission07-Jul-2022
Date of Decision18-Jul-2022
Date of Acceptance20-Jul-2022
Date of Web Publication17-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
MD, FAIMER, PGDHHM, DHRM, FCS, ACME, M.Phil. (HPE), Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cmi.cmi_73_22

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  Abstract 

The introduction of competency-based medical education has brought about a paradigm shift in the delivery of medical education in both undergraduate and postgraduate courses. A portfolio can be regarded as an instrument that can be employed for the storage of learning on a day-to-day basis and for recording the self-reflection by the students. As a matter of fact, the compilation of learning from different sessions gives an opportunity for the students to look back, analyze the overall process and thus reflect on the same, and this process plays a crucial role in ensuring deep learning. At the same time, the compiled information is being used for making evidence-based and well-informed decisions about the overall progress of the student. Further, we also cannot ignore the fact that a well-maintained portfolio can be looked on as one of the indicators of the quality assurance processes employed in an institution. To conclude, portfolios in the field of medical education are an important option to ensure learning and even promote the assessment of medical students. The need of the hour is that every medical institution should look to implement the same in their own settings and help the students in their journey to become competent.

Keywords: Assessment, competency-based, medical education, portfolio


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Scope of portfolio in medical training. Curr Med Issues 2023;21:71-2

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Scope of portfolio in medical training. Curr Med Issues [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Feb 5];21:71-2. Available from: https://www.cmijournal.org/text.asp?2023/21/1/71/367862


  Introduction Top


The introduction of competency-based medical education has brought about a paradigm shift in the delivery of medical education in both undergraduate and postgraduate courses.[1] This is primarily due to the fact that more emphasis has been given toward the attainment of the learning outcomes, professional performance, and strengthening of the overall assessment process. The planning of teaching–learning sessions occurs based on the specific competency that needs to be taught and it is advisable to assess the performance of the students using valid and reliable assessment tools, including workplace-based assessments.[1] Considering that a high-stake decision has to be taken upon the completion of the training period, it becomes vital to capture and store the performance of the students.[2]


  Portfolio Top


A portfolio can be regarded as an instrument that can be employed for the storage of learning on a day-to-day basis and for recording the self-reflection by the students.[2] It is one of the workplace-based assessment tools, and it has similar attributes like logbook. To ascertain the documentation skills of the undergraduate student or postgraduate residents, logbooks and clinical encounter cards are being widely used, both of which happen to be workplace-based assessment tools. We must understand the difference between logbooks and portfolios as they are similar in many ways. The basic difference between logbook and portfolio is that portfolio apart from having the record of activities done, and the supporting documents also contain the reflective component which is missing from logbooks.

The tool of portfolio has been employed in heterogeneous settings in the field of medical education worldwide and it is important to acknowledge that the collected information can be used for a wide range of purposes. As a matter of fact, the compilation of learning from different sessions gives an opportunity for the students to look back, analyze the overall process and thus reflect on the same, and this process plays a crucial role in ensuring deep learning.[3] At the same time, the compiled information is being used for making evidence-based and well-informed decisions about the overall progress of the student. Further, we also cannot ignore the fact that a well-maintained portfolio can be looked on as one of the indicators of the quality assurance processes employed in an institution.[1],[2],[3]


  Portfolio: A Tool for Reflection Top


Reflection in medical education has been acknowledged as an important means to expedite learning in both undergraduate and postgraduate settings. The process of reflection not only gives the student a chance to assess their own performance and compare the same with the expected standards but even aids them to identify the strategies that can aid them to improve their learning and thereby attain the desired competencies.[3],[4] The tool of portfolio strongly advocates that the student has to reflect on the complete process and plays a pivotal role in the making of a reflective practitioner, which is the need of the hour. Moreover, as there is a definite opportunity for the faculty members to mentor the students, it further facilitates the learning process and the students are immensely benefitted.[2]


  Portfolio: A Tool for Assessment Top


To use the portfolio as a tool for assessment, a specific set of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) have been defined, especially for postgraduate courses.[5] The students are assessed based on the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition, wherein a student moves across five levels. These levels include novice (knowledge only), advanced beginner (performs the task under strict supervision), competent (performs the task under loose supervision), proficient (performs the task independently), and expert (teaches others). For each of the specified EPAs, the faculty member assesses the students periodically and grades them from level 1 to level 5, and these grades are monitored to assess their learning progression.[5]


  Portfolio and Apps Top


With the passage of time, different medical institutions and universities have adopted/implemented e-portfolio.[6],[7] The idea behind the implementation of electronic portfolios is to make the total process mobile, and easily accessible. From the students' perspective, the electronic portfolio version can be utilized by the students for their professional careers to highlight important events.[5],[6],[7]


  Conclusion Top


To conclude, portfolios in the field of medical education are an important option to ensure learning and even promote the assessment of medical students. The need of the hour is that every medical institution should look to implement the same in their own settings and help the students in their journey to become competent.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Hawkins RE, Welcher CM, Holmboe ES, Kirk LM, Norcini JJ, Simons KB, et al. Implementation of competency-based medical education: Are we addressing the concerns and challenges? Med Educ 2015;49:1086-102.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Heeneman S, Driessen EW. The use of a portfolio in postgraduate medical education – Reflect, assess and account, one for each or all in one? GMS J Med Educ 2017;34:Doc57.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Roh H, Lee JT, Yoon YS, Rhee BD. Development of a portfolio for competency-based assessment in a clinical clerkship curriculum. Korean J Med Educ 2015;27:321-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mann K, Gordon J, MacLeod A. Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: A systematic review. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2009;14:595-621.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kadagad P, Kotrashetti SM. Portfolio: A comprehensive method of assessment for postgraduates in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2013;12:80-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
De Swardt M, Jenkins LS, Von Pressentin KB, Mash R. Implementing and evaluating an e-portfolio for postgraduate family medicine training in the Western Cape, South Africa. BMC Med Educ 2019;19:251.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kjaer NK, Maagaard R, Wied S. Using an online portfolio in postgraduate training. Med Teach 2006;28:708-12  Back to cited text no. 7
    




 

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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Portfolio
Portfolio: A Too...
Portfolio: A Too...
Portfolio and Apps
Conclusion
References

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